Human Factors and Motivation – Koontz and O'Donnell

Introduction to Leading and Importance of Human Aspects in Leading

Motivation theories are  covered in another post in the subject of Organizational Behavior

Major Motivational Techniques
(Weirich and Koontz – 10th Edition)


Money  can never be overlooked as a motivator. Money is often more than monetary value. Status or power go with money.  Money can be given in the form of wages, piecework rate, incentive pay, bonus, stock options, company paid insurance and in some other forms.

Economists and most managers have tended to place money high on scale of motivators. Behavioral scientists tend to place it low. But neither view right.

As regards money as a motivator some points to be mentioned are:

1. Money is likely to be more important to people who are beginning their career and raising a family than people who have arrived (means late in their career and family obligations are taken care of).

2. Money payments are used to attract employees to work in an organization and they may not motivate people further.

3. Money as a motivator becomes a dull instrument if all managers at a certain level are paid similar compensation.

4. If salaries and bonuses reflect the individual performance it is likely to be more potent as a motivator.

5. Money can acts as a motivator, when the payment promised is large relative to a person’s income.


People when they are consulted on action affecting them or affected by them by being on the act. Right kind of participation yields both motivation and knowledge relevant to the issue on which decisions are being taken. Participation also provides recognition. But still managers have to take decisions after weighing the pros and cons of various alternatives.

Quality of  Work Life

Quality of Work Life (QWL) has a base on sociotechnical system approach to management and it uses knowledge from multiple subjects, industrial and organizational psychology and sociology, industrial engineering, organization theory and development, motivation and leadership theory, and industrial relations. Weihrich and Koontz indicate that QWL programmes are being promoted by well-managed companies to promote productivity and improve working conditions.

Job Enrichment

Research on motivation pointed out that challenging and meaningful  jobs motivate people. Herzberg’s theory of motivation advocates that jobs have to be enriched to provide opportunities for achievement, recognition and responsibility.

Job enrichment can be achieved by:
1. Giving workers more freedom in deciding about such things as work methods, sequence, and pace or the acceptance or rejection of input materials.
2. encouraging workers in decision making and also allowing interaction among workers.
3. giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility for their tasks.
4. Giving information that shows how the task of a worker is contributing to the finished product performance and the welfare of the organization.
5. Giving feedback to workers first before supervisors

6. Involvement of workers in the analysis and change of physical aspects of the work environment, such as the layout of the office or plant, temperature, lighting and cleanliness.

Updated 18 May 2019, 7 Aug 2014, 11 Dec 2011