So keeping an organization youthful is a top management challenge.
Crises in a Developing Organization
by Gordon L. LippittWarren H. Schmidt
Harvard Business Review, NOVEMBER 1967
Life Cycle Models of the Organization
The Greiner Model – Larry E. Greiner
Cameron and Whetton Model
Ainsworth – Land Model
Noel Tichy’s Model
Source: Designing Effective Organizations: Traditional and Transformational Views
David K. Banner, T. Elaine Gagné
SAGE, 1995 – Business & Economics – 480 pages
This book on organization theory adopts a distinctive stance. In contrast to the traditional rational approach, it develops a transformational perspective which focuses on the organizational world as a projection of each organizational member’s consciousness. While covering all the basic topics of organization theory, the author’s approach reflects today’s changing management paradigms.
The Effective Organization: Forces and Forms
Magazine: Winter 1991 January 15, 1991
This article builds a framework and proposes that the effective organization has to solve a jigsaw puzzle with LEGO pieces. The organizations experience forces and it has to redesign itself to survive and prosper under the action of these forces. It is a powerful framework by which to diagnose and deal with the problems organizations face according to the author..
First is the force for direction
Next is the force for efficiency,
Across from the force for efficiency is that for proficiency
Below efficiency is the force for concentration
At the bottom right is the force for innovation
Finally, two forces called catalytic: cooperation and competition.
Forms or Configurations
The entrepreneurial form – direction
The machine form – efficiency,
The professional form – proficiency
The adbocracy form – concentration
The diversified form – innovation
Ideological and the political forms
Experience shows that the dominant force sometimes dominates to the point of undermining all the others. For example, the quest for efficiency in a machine organization can almost totally suppress the capacity for innovation, while in an adhocracy the need for some modicum of efficiency often gets suppressed. This phenomenon is termed contamination
Each configuration is capable of driving itself out of control. That is to say, each contains the seeds of its own destruction.
Truly effective organizations do not exist in pure form. What keeps a configuration effective is not only the dominance of a single force but also the constraining effects of other forces. This is termed containment.
Combination is a mixture of pureforms.
The authors said in a sample of 123 companies, in just over half the cases—sixty-six, the students felt that a single form fitted best. Twenty-five entrepreneurial, thirteen machine, eleven diversified, nine adhocracy, and eight professional organizations were observed. The rest were termed combinations—seventeen different ones in all. Diversified machines were the most common (nine), followed by innovative professionals (eight), entrepreneurial professionals (six), and entrepreneurial machines (five).7
Top Management Challenges
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Updated on 18 September 2019, 29 April 2017