Behavioral Performance Management Model
Identification of Performance Behaviors
Measurement of the Behavior
Functional Analysis of the Behavior
Development of Intervention Strategy
Evaluation to ensure Performance
The whole text on organizational behavior is concerned with the what and how of managing and leading people for high performance in today’s organizations.
Organizational behavior is a science that explains how people behave. In a changing world, the science of behavior must remain the bedrock, the starting place for every decision we make, every new technology we apply, and every initiative we employ in our efforts to bring out the best in people.
In this chapter, an over view of learning theory and principles are first discussed as they act as the foundation for presenting the behavioral management practice.
Learning Process – Change in Behavior
All organizational behavior is either directly or indirectly affected by learning. For example, a worker’s skill, a manager’s attitude, an assistant’s motivation, or a doctor’s mode of dress are all learned. Hence managers of organizational behavior have to understand the learning mechanisms to guide employees to change their behavior. Learning is defined as change in behavior.
In learning theories, behavioristic theories, cognitive theories, social learning and social cognitive learning theories are discussed in the chapter. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are behavioristic theories.
In operant conditioning, the organism must operate on the environment in a right way or appropriate way to get the desired reward.
Working is the operation a worker has to do to get food clothing and shelter for himself and his family.
Tolman proposed cognitive learning.
Kohler discovered insight learning (insight is not based on experience)
Learning takes place via vicarious, or modeling, and self-control processes.
Behavioral Dimension Performance Management Process
1. Identification of Performance Behaviors
Critical behavior that contribute to job performance in the organization are to be identified
2. Measurement of the Behavior
A baseline measure is obtained by determining by observing or by analysis of records the number of times the identified behavior is occurring or not occurring.
3. Functional Analysis of the Behavior
A functional analysis identifies both the antecedents (A) and consequences (C) of the target behavior (B), or simply stated, an A-B-C analysis is performed.
The antecedent cues that emit or elicit the behavior, and sometimes control it, and the consequences that are currently maintaining the behavior must be identified and understood before an effective intervention strategy can be developed. If the employee cannot do the behavior even if he wants to do it, then intervention has to be in antecedent variables. If the employee can do but not doing it, then the intervention has to be in consequence variables.
4. Development of Intervention Strategy
The strategies to be used strengthen functional behaviors and weaken dysfunctional behaviors are positive reinforcement and punishment-positive reinforcement.
Under positive control, people come to work in order to be recognized for making a contribution to their department’s goal of perfect attendance, and they keep busy irrespective of the supervisor’s presence to receive incentive pay or recognition
If punishment is to be used or used, the supervisor must take the first opportunity to positively reinforce the alternative behavior.
5. Evaluation to ensure Performance
Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation to a behavior modification initiative are important. They are reaction, learning, behavioral change, and performance improvement.
Updated on 23 May 2017, 17 July 2014